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宋代官窑六方瓜棱瓶

断代/款识 宋代
规格 高24cm 口8.1cm 底8.1cm
数量 1
委托售价 议价
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官窑,作为我国宋代“五大名窑”之一,是继汝窑后专为宫廷烧制御用瓷。官窑之谓,在中国古代陶瓷史上有不同的内涵。就广义而言,是有别民窑而专为官办的瓷窑,其产品为宫廷所垄断。在宋代瓷器中,官窑即是一种专称,指北宋和南宋时在京城汴京(汴梁,今开封)和临安(今杭州)由宫廷设窑烧造的青瓷,故又有“旧官”和“新官”之分,前者为北宋官窑,后者为南宋官窑。官窑瓷从严格意义上来说,可分为“御窑瓷”和“官窑瓷”。所谓御窑瓷,是指专供皇家使用的瓷器,在器型、纹饰上均有严格的礼仪规定,等级森严,均与《车服制》严格对应,错用或擅用均为重罪。官窑瓷,主要是庞大的官僚君体使用,型制要求相对较低,多限于花鸟虫鱼神话等“礼制”之外的题材,有时皇家会作为“趣味”把玩器采购,但多为官员、富商使用。这一类瓷器,一般由内务府采办,在景德镇设有专门的督陶官,长年烧造。由于两种瓷器均由“官家”督造和采办,所以对民间而言,统称为官窑瓷。       北宋官窑传世品很少,形质与工艺与汝窑有共同处。器多仿古,主要有碗、瓶、洗等。胎体显厚,胎骨深灰、紫色或黑色,釉色有淡青、粉青、月白等,釉质莹润温雅,尤以釉面开大裂纹片著称,不同于南宋官窑和汝窑及龙泉窑瓷器。底有文钉烧痕,有“紫口铁足”的特征。南宋官窑瓷的器型、釉色、胎质和艺术水准均达到中国古瓷器巅峰,尤其是器物表面釉层的开片纹理、制作工艺与审美蕴含堪称登峰造极。其造型古朴而精致,胎体同北宋官窑一样较薄,呈紫褐铁色,但釉层肥润,具有玉质感,其釉色多见淡雅的粉青色和米黄色,釉下见气泡,釉面见大开片,底足亦露胎,具有紫口铁足特征。瓜棱瓶,宋瓷中常见的瓶式之一,瓶体秀丽灵巧,南北瓷窑均有烧制,以景德镇制品居多。此文中这款瓜棱型棱口瓶便为官窑所造,,器呈棱口,弧颈,长圆瓜棱形腹,圈足同棱口,其瓶腹部均匀分布着纵贯的凹凸弧线,将瓶体分成瓜棱形。瓷器内外施满釉,釉层较厚且光泽柔和,周身布满碎片纹(称“开片”),深层纹路呈紫褐色,浅层纹理呈金黄色,大小纹片相间,深浅两色交织,形成典雅美观的“金丝铁线”纹。口沿及足部露胎处呈现“紫口铁足”现象。整件瓷器保存完整,器型优美,又具有宋官窑瓷器之“金丝铁线、紫口铁足”的典型特征,非常难得,此宋代官窑六方瓜棱瓶具有较高的收藏价值和文化价值。

The official kiln, as one of the "Five Famous Kilns" of the Song Dynasty in China, was specially designed for firing imperial porcelain after the Ru kiln. The term "official kiln" has different connotations in the history of ancient Chinese ceramics. In a broad sense, it is a porcelain kiln specifically run by the government, which is different from folk kilns, and its products are monopolized by the court. In the Song Dynasty porcelain, the official kiln is a specialized term that refers to the celadon fired by the palace in the capital cities of Bianjing (Bianliang, now Kaifeng) and Lin'an (now Hangzhou) during the Northern and Southern Song dynasties. Therefore, there is also a distinction between "old official" and "new official". The former is the Northern Song official kiln, while the latter is the Southern Song official kiln. Strictly speaking, official kiln porcelain can be divided into "imperial kiln porcelain" and "official kiln porcelain". The so-called imperial kiln porcelain refers to porcelain specifically designed for the use of the royal family, with strict etiquette regulations in its shape and decoration, strict hierarchy, and strict correspondence with the "Che Fu Zhi". Misuse or unauthorized use are serious offenses. Official kiln porcelain is mainly used by a large bureaucratic monarchy, with relatively low requirements for its form, mostly limited to themes beyond the "ritual" system such as flowers, birds, insects, and fish myths. Sometimes the royal family purchases toys as "fun", but it is mostly used by officials and wealthy merchants. This type of porcelain is generally purchased by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and there is a specialized pottery inspector in Jingdezhen who burns it for many years. Due to the fact that both types of porcelain are supervised and purchased by "officials", they are collectively referred to as official kiln porcelain for the people. The official kilns of the Northern Song Dynasty have few hereditary products, and their form, quality, and craftsmanship share similarities with those of the Ru kiln. There are many antique tools, mainly including bowls, bottles, washing, etc. The body of the embryo is thick, and the embryo bones are dark gray, purple or black. The glaze colors include light blue, pink blue, and moonlight white. The enamel is smooth and elegant, especially known for the large cracks on the glaze surface, which is different from the Southern Song Dynasty official kiln, Ru kiln, and Longquan kiln porcelain. There are burn marks on the bottom of the nail, with the characteristic of "purple mouth and iron feet". The shape, glaze color, body material, and artistic level of Southern Song official kiln porcelain have reached the pinnacle of ancient Chinese porcelain, especially the open grain texture, production technology, and aesthetic connotation of the surface glaze layer of the utensils, which can be called the pinnacle. Its design is simple and exquisite, with a body that is as thin as that of the Northern Song Dynasty official kiln, showing a purple brown iron color. However, the glaze layer is plump and has a jade texture. The glaze color is mostly light and elegant pink blue and beige, with bubbles visible under the glaze, large openings on the glaze surface, and exposed feet, exhibiting the characteristics of purple mouth iron feet. Gualeng bottle, one of the common bottle styles in Song porcelain, has a beautiful and agile body, and is fired in both northern and southern porcelain kilns, with Jingdezhen products being the majority. In this article, this gourd shaped ribbed bottle was made by the official kiln. The vessel has a ribbed mouth, an arc-shaped neck, a long round gourd shaped belly, and a circular foot with the same ribbed mouth. The belly of the bottle is evenly distributed with vertical concave and convex curves, dividing the bottle into gourd shaped shapes. Porcelain is covered with glaze both inside and outside, with a thick and soft glaze layer. The entire body is covered in fragmented patterns (known as "open pieces"), with deep layers of purple brown and shallow layers of golden yellow. The large and small patterns alternate, and the dark and light colors interweave, forming an elegant and beautiful "golden wire" pattern. The phenomenon of "purple mouth and iron feet" appears at the exposed area of the mouth and feet. The entire piece of porcelain is well preserved, with a beautiful shape and typical characteristics of the "golden wire and iron thread, purple mouth and iron foot" of Song Dynasty official kiln porcelain. It is very rare, and this Song Dynasty official kiln hexagonal melon shaped bottle has high collection value and cultural value.


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